The issue of language education policies in algeria is a sensitive. Algeria s own revolutionary tradition and its commitment to selfdetermination and nationalism have historically influenced its foreign policy. Benrabah said that from a quantitative point of view, todays algeria is the second largest frenchspeaking community in the world and that arabization, or the language policy implemented to displace french altogether, failed. It presents different theories and findings related to the present study. The third one mentions the methods that are used to answer the research questions and test the hypotheses. It traces the history of algeria from colonization by the french in 1830 to the celebration of 50 years of independence in 2012, and examines the linguistic issues that have accompanied this turbulent period. Foreign policy dynamics and us interests summary the socialist government of president chadli bendjedid has taken several diplomatic actions this year that we judge are at odds with us and western interests. Reexamining the fluctuations in language ineducation. The first section of the paper focuses on the recent changes in government language policy return to arabicfrench bilingualism in schools and reactions to them following the recommendations made by the national commission for the reform of the educational system in. We use your linkedin profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. It traces the history of algeria from colonization by.
It traces the history of algeria from colonization by the french in 1830 to the celebration of 50 years of independence in 2012, and examines the linguistic issues that have accomp. The language planning situation in algeria article in current issues in language planning 64. The present paper attempts to deeply describe foreign language policy in algerian education in general and at higher education in. Despite intermittent attempts to eradicate french from public life, by the 2000s the proportion of french speakers in algeria was much higher than on the eve of. A sociolinguistic study of language policy in algeria. Algeria foreign policy the united states and some western european countries have criticized the way the last presidential election was conducted, but they have refrained from criticizing algerias human rights practices. Language in education policy in ghana has been in a flux since british colonial rule but particularly so after independence. Browse our archives of magazine articles, interviews, and indepth essays from experts in algeria.
As will be discussed in greater detail in chapter 3, the results of the surveys are used to answer the stated research question, through discursive analysis, on how arabic and french each contribute to algerian attitudes towards national identity. The language planning situation in algeria request pdf. The arabic language has been algerias official language since 1963 and today its spoken by approximately 81% of the algerian population. Both alienation and both alienation and assimilation were critical in the dissolving of the algerian identity. When france colonised algeria in 1830, it was not merely economic exploitation or political domination it sought, but a comprehensive annexation that aimed at eliminating its culture.
In 1993, the algerian government introduced english as the first foreign language in primary schools instead of french, a colonial language so far dominant. Algerias own revolutionary tradition and its commitment to selfdetermination and nationalism have historically influenced its foreign policy. The book also discusses the implications this language policy will have on languageineducation planning in algeria, namely from the perspective of teacher education. The paper presents the language policy arabisation pursued in algeria since independence in 1962.
The primary focus is to explore the linguistic context in order to identify the principles of language policy making in algeria that have produced the current situation. A close examination of post independence language in education policies shows these fluctuating policies have moved from one form of bilingual education policy to another. Since independence, algerian authorities have used a number of ideological pro cesses to gain. French is a lingua franca of algeria according to the cia world factbook. Library of congress federal research division country profile. For the elite of independent algeria, arabization signified the policy of substituting modern standard arabic msa for french in politics, education, and public administration. The first section of the paper focuses on the recent changes in government language policy return to arabicfrench bilingualism in schools and reactions to them following the recommendations made by the national commission for the reform of the educational system in march 2001. Pakistans language policies have reflected the degree to which all but a few chosen were prevented from participating in the process ayres 2003. French policy making visevis the algerian ide ntity and culture. Algerias constitution of 1989, reinstated in 1996, with. Its history is a long chain of battles which have made algeria forever a country of freedom and. The book also discusses the implications this language policy will have on language in education planning in algeria, namely from the perspective of teacher education. Thirdly, is the english language which is used occasionally and its results equivalent to 42. Policy brief 1501 shale gas in algeria no quick fix tim boersma marie vandendriessche andrew leber.
Rising shale gas potential in the us will impact negatively on algerias oil and gas exports and there is now a growing need for algeria to find new destinations for its hydrocarbon products, presumably in emerging economies in asia, africa and south america. Many tensions and paradoxes that arise from bilingual education policies in multiethnic. The total population of algeria at the time was 21 million. Algeria is one of the larger middle eastern and north african states, and their political and economic processes are carefully watched. Lep is considered a form of imposition and manipulation of language policy as it is used by those in authority to turn ideology into practice through formal education. Earthtrends, coastal and marine ecosystems searchable database source. The two official languages in algeria are recognized as modern standard arabic and tamazight berber. Nonnative speakers learn literary arabic at school, and as such a relative majority of the population understands standard arabic or the algerian arabic dialect. Pdf the french colonial occupation and the algerian.
Some of their work, such as the pioneering studies of the language situation in east africa, made efforts to build databases. This is mainly because algerian policy makers and language planners, as explained in saadane and habash 2015, consider al darija as an underresourced language due to its lack of writing resources. Algeria faces a diverse range of interrelated security threats. The constitutional amendment on may 8, 2002 made berber a national language of algeria. Pdf this paper is a personal reflection that will attempt to foreground the evolution of the english language in algeria since this country. This gives an immediate idea about where the algerian foreign policy priorities lie. Mohamed benrabahs detailed and wideranging study addresses each aspect of the question, from everyday language attitudes, through the problems of policy and planning, to education, popular culture, and literature. Algeria, may 2008 4 colons colonists, or, more popularly, pieds noirs literally, black feet dominated the. Berber has been recognized as a national language by constitutional amendment since 8 may 2002. No quick fix brookings energy security and climate initiative i t. Read language conflict in algeria from colonialism to postindependence by prof. Pledged to upholding and furthering the revolution against imperialism, algeria has been a prominent leader in both the region and the developing world. Then comes the french language, with a score of 55. Algerias foreign policy was strongly nationalistic and antiwestern.
Algeria makes an interesting object for study on language policy and language. For the first time, the maghrib was united under a local regime, but the continuing wars in spain overtaxed the resources of the almohads, and in the maghrib their. English language education policy in the middle east and. This monograph describes the language planning situation in algeria. Algeria shares with other countries in the region, the distinctive characteristic of being an arab, moslem, african and mediterranean country. Earthtrends, coastal and marine ecosystems searchable. Many elite also intended for msa to replace colloquial arabic and berber, the first languages of most algerians, as the languages of daily communication. Almost no one in algeria uses the high variety msa in his her daily interactions. Jun, 2019 modern standard arabic and tamazight are the two official languages of algeria.
Pakistans language policy has undermined every regions sense of identity. The debate on the role of amazigh culture and language is particularly important for the other maghrib states that also have berber groups in their populations. If so, we invite you to join our contributor program. For algerians, language is inextricably bound up with their countrys identity, be it arab.
The hostility towards the west, especially the united states, particularly caused by the fact that algeria was independent from a foreign colonial power. It is believed that algeria absorbed heavy colonial impact not only in its social life but also in its educational policy. Chapter two provides an insight into the history of language policy in algeria. An analysis of indonesias national language policy. Language policy and planning policy is defined in the encyclopedia of education 1971 as a statement that. Youll receive credits toward complimentary access to ethnologue for every contribution that is vetted and accepted. Languageineducation planning in algeria univtebessa. Laitin and rajesh ramachandran august 2015 abstract this paper explores how language policy affects the socioeconomic development of nation states through two channels. This tolerance has always been predicated on there being at least a semblance of a democratic process in place. The fourth chapter introduces some suggestions and recommendations that can be regarded as tentative remedies to the ills of the policies of languages in algeria. It also discusses problems that have arisen from the arabisation. In february, 2016, a constitutional resolution was passed making berber an official language alongside arabic.
The literature dealing with terrorism and criminal networks is relatively consistent, although there is some divergence with regard to the extent of the involvement of islamist groups in criminal activities. The focus on education is, of course, manifest in the cliched emphasis on the role of language in education. All our expanded pdfs are included with a standard plan. This is a book about the use of languages as a proxy for conflict. Algerian arabic is the language of 73% of algeria s population. Algerias biggest export market is the us, which accounts for 2025% of total exports. Two main modern pronouncements on language policy in nigeria merit our attention, to wit the national policy on education 1977, revised in 1981, and the 1979 constitution, which is more cited than its 1989 reincarnation. Measures contemplated in that connection included the preparation of a national strategy to eliminate poverty and. The other low variety aa is commonly used through regionally different, but allowing intercomprehension. Algeria, using questionnaires, conducted in arabic or french. A foreign policy history 1 february 20 by matthew hanzel in foreign policy leave a comment if there are certain factors that may define algerian foreign policy greatly, the factors of nationalism and revolutionary movements may provide the answer. We also believe that during his nine years of rule bendjedid has crafted a foreign.
Algeria stay up to date on the latest news, analysis, and commentary in algeria. Algeria relies on oil revenues for 98 percent of its general budget and economic programs, leading to general economic downturn in the wake of falling oil prices. The query of language education policies in algeria appears to be among the most crucial issues involved in current language research. Language conflict in algeria scholarlycommons university of. Since the colonial era, the politics of language has been one of the most corrosive and divisive issues in algeria. In a multilingual situation like nigeria, the establishment of a language policy becomes imperative. Arabization policies are likely to say nowadays that egypt took the envoy at his word. In fact, english was introduced in grade 4 of some pilot primary schools, before it was. This is because such a policy will serve as a guiding factor in language use and language teaching. In reaction to this language policy, indigenous or regional languages have become identity markers. Since the independance in 1962, the efl teachinglearning in algeria has known successive changes. Algeria is the second largest francophone country in the world in terms of speakers.
Pages in category languages of algeria the following 33 pages are in this category, out of 33 total. The introduction of arabic through the arabization policy in the educational system, reduced the use of french which one should note, was the sole medium of education in the postindependant period and had always a beneficial effect in the. Pdf language and politics in algeria mohamed benrabah. May 16, 20 since the colonial era, the politics of language has been one of the most corrosive and divisive issues in algeria. One of the key foreign policies in this era was the support that algerian.
The syndrome of the french language in algeria malika rebai maamri, university of algiers, algeria. All official documents are printed in arabic, and people from nonarabic households are taught the arabic language in schools. The official languages of algeria are arabic and tamazight berber, as specified in its constitution since 1963 for the former and since 2016 for the latter. The status of french and english languages 229 regretted that young algerians do not master the arabic language amir, 2006.
Algeria the coastal regions consitute the coastal provinces commonly refered to as wilayas source. Based on the national acts or decrees of the maritime zones. It is suggested that algeria is in need of a new transitional teacher training and development system as an essential requirement for the appropriate implementation of this policy. Ferguson 1959 explains and develops diglossia in arabicspeaking countries. Unlock this profile with an essentials plan see the details on every language spoken in algeria, plus. The final part of the monograph focuses on future prospects against the background of past practices and algerias new language policy.680 817 1222 829 961 844 1341 1142 203 1486 774 918 752 763 127 1033 1515 515 300 156 1094 1402 186 49 1523 1396 1038 550 1450 972 766 1290 1508 1074 1033 382 664 288 514 416 1125 636 838 1279 478